Kampala, Uganda

In Bwaise (in Kampala), more than 70,000 people, living in informally arranged residential shacks and houses on a few km2 have little basic services. Small and medium enterprises are present along the main roads. Furthermore, there are a number of schools. Due to the high population density, there is no space to allow for urban agriculture. Water from the public supply company is supplied to the area via standpipes. For those who cannot afford that water, the only option is to use groundwater, which is available via a number of springs. Recent research we carried out here indicated that most if not all groundwater from springs is contaminated from both acid rain caused by burning fossil fuels and wastewater infiltration (Nyenje et al., 2014). The latter has resulted in the widespread presence of high numbers of various pathogenic viruses (Katukiza et al., 2013)