Arusha, Tanzania

In Sombetini and Unga Limited (in Arusha), 75,000 people live in informally arranged shacks mostly without basic services. Like in Bwaise, there are many small and medium enterprises present along the main roads. Water services include groundwater self-supply from springs and shallow wells and municipal connections operated by the Arusha Urban Water Supply Authority (AUWSA) on an intermittent basis. AUWSA uses both groundwater and surface water resources for their supply. The major sources of water supply in Unga Ltd and Sombetini are natural springs. Unfortunately, most of these springs have high fecal coliform concentrations. Some people are directly connected, while the majority of the residents fetch water from AUWSA kiosks. These kiosks were constructed by AUWSA and subcontracted to private partners. Small-scale rainwater harvesting is practiced by those residents with houses, that have appropriate roofs. Besides limited data availability on fecal coliform, data on groundwater quality is lacking, although fluoride problems are quite common in the Arusha area, and are mainly associated with volcanic lahars (Ghiglieri et al., 2012).